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17.2 Copyright—Defined

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17.2 Copyright—Defined

            Copyright is the exclusive right to copy.  This right to copy includes the exclusive right[s] to [, or authorize others to]: 

[1.]      [reproduce the copyrighted work in [copies] [phonorecords];]


[2.]      [[recast, transform, or adapt the work, that is] prepare derivative works based upon the copyrighted work;]


[3.]      [distribute [copies] [phonorecords] of the copyrighted work to the public by [sale or other transfer of ownership] [or by] [rental or lease or lending];]


[4.]      [perform publicly a copyrighted [literary work] [musical work] [dramatic work] [choreographic work] [pantomime work] [motion picture] [or] [specify other audiovisual work];]


[5.]      [display publicly a copyrighted [literary work] [musical work] [dramatic work] [choreographic work] [pantomime work] [pictorial work] [graphic work] [sculptural work] [individual image of a motion picture] [or] [specify other audiovisual work]; and]


[6.]      [perform a sound recording by means of digital audio transmission]. 

            It is the owner of a copyright who may exercise [this] [these] exclusive right[s].  The term “owner” includes [the author of the work] [an assignee] [an exclusive licensee].  In general, copyright law protects against [reproduction] [adaptation] [public distribution] [public performance] [public display] of identical or substantially similar copies of the owner’s copyrighted work without the owner’s permission.  An owner may enforce the[se] right[s] to exclude others in an action for copyright infringement. 


            This instruction identifies the types of rights involved in the term “copyright.”  See Kalantari v. NITV, Inc., 352 F.3d 1202, 1207-08 (9th Cir. 2003) (“Upon obtaining a copyright, an author automatically acquires certain rights that are inherent in the very nature of a copyright.  Specifically, the copyright owner obtains the six exclusive rights of copyright … as well as the right to transfer any or all of those rights….” (citation omitted)).   

            There are exceptions to these “exclusive” rights.  See, e.g., 17 U.S.C. §§ 107–122.  For definitions of various terms used in this instruction, including phonorecords and digital transmission, see 17 U.S.C. § 101.